This website aims to draw together information concerning structures which crystallise with more than one molecule in the asymmetric unit, i.e. Z' > 1.

Please follow the links below or on the left for more details:

  • What is Z' - An introduction to Z'
  • Z' Limitations - A guide to some common pitfalls and problems with the definition of Z'
  • Our Work - An overview of our research on structures with high Z'
  • Database - A database of known structures with Z' > 4
  • Literature - A selection of papers concerning the Z' phenomenon
  • Submit - Please add to our database by submitting your unpublished high Z' structures
  • Useful Links - Some useful websites
  • Steed Research Group - A link to the Durham Supramolecular Chemistry group homepage


MAJSOG, Z'=8  ASAPEP, Z'=10  TRIMES10, Z'=12


We would like to thank Professor Len Barbour (University of Stellenbosch, South Africa) for his invaluable assistance.
We would also like to thank the EPSRC for funding (Grant Numbers: EP/D040329/1 and EP/E031153).

This site is dedicated to Dr. Andrés E. Goeta.

Contact Us

If you have any questions or queries about this site then please let us know.
If you have a high Z' structure which you would like to add to the database then please click here.
For more information on research in our group, please visit our research group homepage.